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Carapa.org - Literature


Here, a Endnote X2 zipped file with references (with 'carapa' in topic and title) compiled from ISI Web of Knowledge ®. More information about  Endnote X2

Link of interest

Australian New Crops Web Site


Ferraz, I. D. K., Camargo, J. L. C. & Sampaio, P. T. S. 2002. Sementes e plântulas de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. e Carapa procera D. C.): aspectos botânicos, ecológicos e tecnológicos. Acta Amazonica 32:647-661.

Fisch, S.T.V., Ferraz, I.D.K., & Rodrigues, W.A., 1996: Distinguishing Carapa guianensis Aubl. from Carapa procera D.C. (Meliaceae) by morphology of young seedlings. Acta Amazonica 25 (3/4), S. 193-200.

Flowering & Fruiting

Forget, P.-M., Hammond, D., Milleron, T., & Thomas, R. 2002b. Seasonality of fruiting and food hoarding by rodents in Neotropical forests: consequences for seed dispersal and seedling recruitment. Pages 241-253 in D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva, and M. Galetti, editors. Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Seed Dispersal & Predation

Forget, P.-M. 1996. Removal of seeds of Carapa procera (Meliaceae) by rodents and their fate in rainforest in French Guiana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:751-761.

Guariguata, M. R., Claire, H. A.-Le, Jones, G. 2002. Tree Seed Fate in a Logged and Fragmented Forest Landscape, Northeastern Costa Rica. Biotropica 43:405-415.

Jansen, P. A. 2003. Scatterhoarding and tree regeneration. Ecology of nut dispersal in a Neotropical forest. Ph. D. Wageningen University.
¤ Jansen, P. A., Bartholomeus, M., Bongers, F., Elzinga, J. A., Den Ouden, J. & Van Wieren, S. E. 2002.
The role of seed size in dispersal by a scatter-hoarding rodent. Pages 209-225 in D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva, and M. Galetti, editors. Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation. CAB International, Wallington.

Jansen, P. A., Bongers, F. & Hemerik, L. 2004. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodents. Ecological Monograph 74:569-589.

Jansen, P. A. & den Ouden, J. 2005. Observing seed removal: remote video monitoring seed selection, predation and dispersal. Pages 363-378 in P.-M. Forget, J. E. Lambert, H. P.E., and S. B. Vander Wall, editors. Seed fate: predation and secondary dispersal. CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Jansen, P. A. & Forget, P.-M. 2001. Scatterhoarding by rodents and tree regeneration in French Guiana. Pages 275-288 in F. Bongers, P. Charles-Dominique, P. M. Forget, and M. Théry, editors. Nouragues: dynamics and plant-animal interactions in a neotropical rainforest. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

MacHargue, L. A. & Harsthorn, G. S. 1983. Seed and seedling ecology of Carapa guianensis. Turrialba 33:399-404.

Rankin, J.M. 1978. The Influence of seed predation and plant competition on three species abundances in two adjacent tropical rain forest communities in Trinidad. West Indies. Ph.D. dissertation. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan.


Natural Recruitment & Forest Dynamics

Baraloto, C. 2001. Tradeoffs between neotropical tree seedling traits and performance in contrasting environments. University of Michigan.

Baraloto, C. & Forget, P.-M. 2004. Effects of seed size and post-logging microhabitats on regeneration from seed: implications for sustainable forest management. Pages 191-203 in S. Gourlet-Fleury, J.-M. Guehl, and O. Laroussinie, editors. Ecology and management of a Neotropical rainforest - lessons drawn from Paracou, a long-term experimental research site in French Guiana. Elsevier, The Hagues.

Bauch, J. & Dunisch, O. 2000. Comparison of growth dynamics and wood characteristics of plantation-grown and primary forest Carapa guianensis in Central Amazonia. IAWA Journal 21:321-333.

Forget, P. M., Mercier, F. & Collinet, F. 1999. Spatial patterns of two rodent-dispersed rain forest trees Carapa procera (Meliaceae) and Vouacapoua americana (Caesalpiniaceae) at Paracou, French Guiana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15:301-313


Dunisch, O. & Morais, R. R. 2002. Regulation of xylem sap flow in an evergreen, a semi-deciduous, and a deciduous Meliaceae species from the Amazon. Trees Structure and Function 16:404-416.

Severien-Barigah, T., Imbert, P. & Huc, R. 1998. Growth and net assimilation rate of seedlings of ten Guianan tree species grown under five light regimes. [French]. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 55:681-706.

Roggy J. C., Prévost M. F., Gourbiere F., Casabianca H., Garbaye J. & Domenach, A. M. 1999. Leaf natural 15N abundance and total N concentration as potential indicators of plant N nutrition in legumes and pioneer species in a rain forest of French Guiana. Oecologia 2:171-182.

Genetic Diversity

Dayanandan, S., Dole, J., Bawa, K. & Kesseli, R. 1999. Population structure delineated with microsatellite markers in fragmented populations of a tropical tree, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae). Molecular Ecology 8:1585-1592.

Degen, B., Caron, H., Bandou, E., Maggia, L., Chevallier, M. H., Leveau, A. & Kremer, A. 2001. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of eight tropical tree species as analysed by RAPDs. Heredity 87:497-507.

Doligez, A. & Joly, H. I. 1997. Mating system of Carapa procera (meliaceae) in the french guiana tropical forest. American Journal of Botany 84:461-470.

Hall, P., Orrell, L. C. & Bawa, K. S. 1994. Genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae),. American Journal of Botany 81:1104-1111.

Orrell, L.C. 1993. Genetic variation and population differentiation of Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae). (Honors thesis).


Non-Timber Forest Product

Forget, P.-M., Baraloto, C., Blanc, L., Petronelli, P. & Gourlet-Fleury, S. 2002a. Sustainable harvesting of crabwood (Carapa procera) seeds: dispersal, predation and regeneration. International Technical Workshop. in J. Forte, S. Ousman, and R. Radzik, editors. Critical issues in the marketing and sustainable and equitable use of crabwood oil in Guyana, Lake Mainstay Resort, Region 2, Guyana, South America.

Payne, K. 2001. The potential sustainable production of Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) Aubl. Oil in the Iwokrama Forest, Guyana. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

Plowden, C. 2001. The Ecology, Management and Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in the Alto Rio Guamá Indigenous Reserve (Eastern Brazilian Amazon). Ph.D. dissertation. University Park: Penn State University.

Plowden, C. 2004. The Ecology and Harvest of Andiroba Seeds for Oil Production in the Brazilian Amazon. Conservation & Society 2:251-272.

Merton, Y., 1994. Marketing and economic importance of biodiversity in Suriname, Paramaribo.

Logging & Forest Fragmentation

Forget, P. M., Rankin-De Merona, J. M. & Julliot, C. 2001. The effects of forest type, harvesting and stand refinement on early seedling recruitment in a tropical rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17:593-609.

Guariguata, M. R., Adame, J. J. R. & Finegan, B. 2000. Seed removal and fate in two selectively logged lowland forests with constrasting protection  levels. Conservation Biology 14:1046-1054.

Guariguata, M. R., Arias LeClaire, H. & Jones, G. 2002. Tree seed fate in a logged and fragmented forest landscape, northeastern Costa Rica. Biotropica 34:405-415.

Webb, E. L. 1997. Canopy removal and residual stand damage during controlled selective logging in lowland swamp forest of Northeast Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management 95:117-129.

Webb, E. L. 1998. Gap-phase regeneration in selectively logged lowland swamp forest, northeastern Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14:247-260.

Webb, E. L. 1999. Growth ecology of Carapa nicaraguensis Aublet. (Meliaceae): Implications for natural forest management. Biotropica 31:102-110.


Menyailo, O. V., Lehmann, J., de Silva Cravo, Manoel & Zech, W. 2003. Soil microbial activities in tree-based cropping systems and natural forests of the Central Amazon, Brazil. Biol Fertil Soils 38:1–9.

Bauch, J. & O. Dünisch, O. 2000. Comparison of growth dynamics and wood characteristics of plantation-grown and primary Carapa guianensis in Central Amazonia. IAWA Journal 21: 321-33.


Patrick A. Jansen (PhD published in 2003) analysed the ecology of Carapa surinamensis (formerly procera) seeds in French Guiana.

Cf. Scatterhoarding and tree regeneration by Patrick A. Jansen & Pierre-Michel Forget. In Bongers et al. (eds.), Nouragues. Dynamics and plant-animal interactions in a neotropical rainforest, 275–288. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. pdf